Since the 1940s, Industrial Hygiene has been a profession. When my son came home and told me he was going to be an Industrial Hygienist, I thought he was going to clean people’s teeth in an industrial environment. The more I learned, the happier I was, that he has chosen Industrial Hygiene as his career field.
Industrial hygiene is the science of protecting and enhancing the health and safety of people at work and in their communities. Health and safety hazards cover a wide range of chemical, physical, biological, and ergonomic stressors. Those dedicated to anticipating, recognizing, evaluating, and controlling those hazards are known as Industrial Hygienists.
In a nutshell, an Industrial Hygienist ensures workers are healthy and safe.
Industrial Hygienists analyze work environments and work procedures. They inspect and monitor workplaces to ensure compliance with regulations on safety, health, and the environment. They do some or all of the following:
Inspect, monitor, and evaluate workplace
environments, equipment, and processes for safety standard compliance
Prepare written reports incorporating their
Create and implement workplace processes that protect
Prepare and provide training programs to educate
employers and workers
Make recommendations and demonstrate the use of
Investigate incidents and accidents to identify the
cause and identify preventative actions
Industry can be a mixed debate for worker safety. Profit margins are high on the list and are in constant scrutiny. Industry creates jobs, provides economic benefits, especially for the local community.
The industries that Industrial Hygiene professionals can work in are Mining, Factories, Pharma, Construction, Wildfire Management, Environmental, Oil and Gas, and Foundries.
Each of these industries has its illness catalysts:
Respirable crystalline silica and inhalable dust,
coal, mineral, welding fumes, smoke, and other particulate aerosols.
Petroleum-based products including semi-volatile
organic and volatile organic compounds, and liquid, vapor, mist and gas
Noise and vibration from production, maintenance
tools, and equipment.
Workers have certain health risks:
Carbon Monoxide, Mercury, Beryllium, and Lead Poisoning
Debilitating Hand conditions
Silicosis, Lung Cancer and Pulmonary
On the job injuries including falls and slips
Electrical Magnetic Frequency Damage
A good Industrial Hygiene and safety program includes
analyzing and monitoring respiratory protection, confined space, hot work,
hearing conservation, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), lock-out/tag-out,
and other health and safety initiatives.
The job market is in high demand for Industrial Hygienists.
Median Pay in the United States: $79,940 Annually ($36.03 per Hour)
Number of Jobs: 88,390 with a growth rate of 4% per year (Does not include self-employed)
Expected employment change, 2016 to 2026, 8,600 more jobs
The general requirements are the following, although some
employers will require more:
Bachelor’s degree in Industrial Hygiene or
related field of study
Ability to work on a team and individually
Time management and strong organizational skills
Adeptness for the usage of specialized equipment
and monitoring instruments to measure various hazards, such as airborne
contaminants or noise pollution
Ability to teach employees and develop training for
Attention to Detail
Capability to create policies and procedures for
safe practices in the workplace
Ability to travel
Strong written and oral communication skills
Ability to study for, receive and maintain
An Industrial Hygienist at the very minimum requires a bachelor’s degree.
Masters degrees are not essential, but as competition increases advanced degrees will help compete. However, doctorates are necessary for those that wish to do academic research and to become a specialist. Certification is recommended.
The Industry Profile is interesting as well. 35% work in the Federal Government, 41% work
in State and Local government, 40% work in Management, Scientific and Technical
Consulting Services and 16% work in the Management of Companies and
Enterprises. The states with the highest
percentage of jobs are Texas, California, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and New York.
Most of the Industrial Hygienists I have met are very happy with their job. They do not do the same thing every day, and they enjoy helping workers stay safe. In general, they are very intelligent and compassionate and are extremely concerned about preventing the workers in their charge from getting sick.
If you are trying to figure out what career field, I highly suggest investigating this career field.
One of the most life-altering and iconic
events in America’s history is the completion of the Transcontinental
Railroad. The historic event happened on
May 10, 1869. The coast-to-coast
railroad revolutionized settlement of the American West and provided means to
spark growth of the economy.
All of Utah is preparing for May 10th, 2019. The day marks the 150th
anniversary of the driving of the Golden Spike at Promontory Summit, which commemorated
the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad.
Spike is a 17.6 karat gold spike driven by Leland Stanford to join the
rails of the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads into the Transcontinental
The day will undoubtedly attract many visitors, and some
have predicted over 75,000 visitors to Ogden, Utah on every day of the
The Union Pacific Railroad is bringing their newly restored
Big Boy No. 4014 locomotive and the Living Legend No. 844 to Ogden, before the
engines return home to the steam shop in Cheyenne, Wyoming.
On May 11, you can take a tour of the No. 4014 and the No.
844 at the Ogden Union Station. Enjoy other
trains of the heritage fleet in Ogden as part of the event.
On the anniversary date, May 10th, the celebration
moves to the Golden Spike National Historical Park (https://www.nps.gov/gosp/index.htm),
the site where the spike was pounded in place.
A series of activities and events are being organized by Spike 150 (https://spike150.org) to educate and celebrate the Transcontinental Railroad history.
Throughout history, air pollution has been a problem. Not only smog but fumes from excessive coal use in households as well as dirty air released from manufacturing, mining and increased emissions from industrial processes. Respirators were invented.
Londoners even coined a phrase, “pea-soupers,” because, since the 14th Century, London has been affected by thick smog.
Because of poor air, civilizations learned to deal with air pollution by using respirators of different types whether basic or technologically advanced.
Pliny the Elder, Library of Congress [Public domain]
In the first century A.D., an inventor named Pliny, the Elder, utilized an animal bladder to protect Roman miners from inhaling lead oxide dust. Although primitive, his idea was considered the very first recorded respirator invention.
In the 16th century, Leonardo da Vinci proposed using a woven cloth dipped in water over the face to protect against the toxic chemicals used in chemical warfare.
Expanding on the need for protection of the industrial worker’s lungs, inventors offered other solutions in the centuries that followed.
In 1849, Lewis Phectic Haslett invented the “Lung Protector” which allowed a mouthpiece fitted with two clapper valves and used a wool filter to keep out dust. The first U.S. patent, US 6529, for a “Lung Protector” was recorded in 1849 and was for a respirator that utilized one-way valves moistened with sheep wool to filter dust.
In 1860, A Scottish chemist, John Stenhouse, decided to use charcoal in a wide variety of air-purifying devices. He invented the first respirator that captured toxic gases from the air. He especially wanted to protect firemen and first responders.
John Stenhouse Mask, Public Domain
As even more, innovative scientific minds gained interest in air purifying devices, a race occurred to develop respirators that could protect against a broader range of air pollutants, such as hazardous gases.
In 1871, British physicist John Tyndall took Stenhouse’s mask, added a filter of cotton wool saturated with lime, glycerin, and charcoal, and invented a “fireman’s respirator,” a hood that filtered smoke and gas from air. Mr. Tyndall exhibited this respirator at a meeting of the Royal Society in London in 1874.
Also in 1874, Samuel Barton patented a device that ‘permitted respiration in places where the atmosphere is charged with noxious gases, or vapors, smoke, or other impurities.’ The first to include rubber and a metal hood structure, the Samuel Barton Respirator had a filter located in front and two eyepieces made of glass. The metal canister design contained lime, glycerin-soaked cotton wool, and charcoal.
Haslett Gas Mask, Frogstorm
In 1879, Hutson Hurd’s design improved on the design of the Haslett Lung protector and invented the design of the cup-shaped mask. The Hutson Hurd’s H.S. Cover Company manufactured these cup-shaped masks well into the 1970s.
Respirator Inventions World War I
After World War I, the military became much more involved and developed an intense interest in the use of respirators primarily as a defense mechanism against chemical warfare. Because of the military interest and money, the advances in the creation of inexpensive, useful filters increased in the 1930s. The filters were initially made with resin-infused dust and were further developed using fine particulates of glass fiber that could eliminate particulate matter. The design of the filter helped with the breathing ability that was not inhibited by the filters.
Post World War I
After World War I, the United States and the United Kingdom faced some of the worst air pollution cases in history.
In 1943, Los Angeles, California (LA), long known for its poor air quality, suffered from its first smog incident. LA’s factories and massive vehicle industry were to blame for the smog.
Nelson’s Column during the Great Smog of 1952
In December of 1952, the “great smog” or “big smoke” caused the city of Long to be engulfed in a thick layer of air smog which lasted for five days and resulted in 12,000 plus fatalities and 100,000 reported cases of respiratory illness. The smog was caused by the cold weather, lack of wind and the subsequent use of too much coal to heat the country.
In 1965, the Army provided an Emergency Respirator that consisted of Lucite, machined channels and a cover place that was secured by screws or adhesive. The mask did not have any moving parts but did have an amplifier that air could flow through. The technology was developed by the Harry Diamond Laboratories which later became part of the United States Army Research Laboratory.
The Future of Respirators
According to the World Health Organization, the top three of most air-polluted cities in the word rated by Particulate Matter (PM) concentration are 1) Kanpur, India, 2) Faridabad, India, and 3) Gaya, India. Other countries have issues including Pakistan, Uganda, China, and Qatar. Global air pollution problems and continuing climate change will put pressure on developing countries and will allow more advancements in the use of respirators.
The pain of Kanpur, NDTV
The bigger the monetary fine, the more public health exposure, the more advancement of air pollution initiatives will continue. Labor laws, like the OSHA’s Respirable Crystalline Silica Standard standard for both Construction and General Industry, will become more refined to help protect workers. Because of the laws, respirators will continue to advance technologically.
Respirator technology is becoming sleeker, and most people wear primitive forms of respirators, like surgical masks, for protection. Surgical masks only work for airborne viruses and not air pollutants. In Japan, young people have used surgical masks as a fashion accessory to not only cover the face but protect from airborne viruses.
The human factor of respirators of the future will depend on comfortable fit, the mood of the wearer, and the actual protection the respirator provides, especially in an industrial environment.
The need for raising awareness of protecting your lungs from air pollution continues to be profound. Surgical masks will not work to eliminate PM, and in industrial situations, specific processes should always have the employee where a respirator mask.
DynaGrace Enterprises, a WOSB, professional services company has been awarded the GSA Schedule 66 – Scientific Equipment and Services Schedule Contract. The first women-owned firm in Utah to be a vendor on that prestigious GSA schedule.
It’s more than DUST. The employee who works in a dusty environment is exposed to a deadlier form of dust, silica. The average person is also exposed to a massive amount of air pollution that you can see with the human eye. DynaGrace Enterprises helps people breathe cleaner air by providing products and services for monitoring respirable dust particles and visible emissions.
“This federal government contracting vehicle enables us to reach more occupational health and safety managers as well as those agencies concerned with worker safety and air quality regulation and compliance, “ stated Linda Rawson, President, and Founder of DynaGrace Enterprises.
The arduous process of getting the prestigious GSA schedule was made easier by utilizing the State of Utah’s, Governor’s Office of Economic Development program of offering a referral to LSI’s GSA consulting assistance from PTAC. Linda Rawson states, “LSI was another member of our team, and I consulted with them often to ensure I was answering the questions appropriately.”
The respirable dust products surround the Nanozen DustCount 8899, a real-time, wearable, respirable dust monitor. Instantaneous reporting makes compliance with OSHA Respirable Crystalline Silica
Master Sgt. Donnie Bogan saws cutting lines in concrete, licensed under the terms of the United States Government Work.
standard easy. The Nanozen DustCount 8899, a real-time, wearable, respirable dust monitor detects air particulates down to a microscopic level in real-time.
OSHA has recently changed the Respirable Crystalline Silica Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) to 50 mg/m3 for 8 hours and the Action Limit to 25 mg/m3. Employers need to evaluate and control the exposure limit for their employees.
One way to do that is to have a worker wear the DustCount, for 8 hours and obtain the Total Weight Average (TWA). The rugged DustCount fits into a vest pocket or clips on a belt. The results can be analyzed real-time and downloaded at the end of the shift. The filter is then sent to an AIHA approved lab to be analyzed for silica levels.
The second product line surrounds visible emissions and offers a Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) called Digital Opacity Compliance System (DOCS) by Virtual Technology LLC out of Arizona. The system can determine plume opacity from smoke, soot, and visible dust. Some of these are necessary, but the software helps determine how much is too much. The software ensures EPA Method 9 compliance and EPA Method 22 for the frequency of emissions.
Scientific professional services are also available including Data Security Analyst, Software Systems Engineer, Technical Writing and Editing, Technical Support and Visible Emission Consulting.
Linda Rawson passionately says “Let’s face it. We don’t want anybody years from now spitting a piece of their lung on the sidewalk from silicosis. We are deeply concerned about the air quality of the nation. We are concerned with the air people breathe both at work and in their daily lives and want to make sure the air is safer.”
Customers can learn more about DynaGrace Enterprises by visiting the company’s website at DynaGrace.com or by calling the company directly at 888-676-0058. DynaGrace Enterprises will be at the AIHA conference in the Nanozen booth #1502.
Construction dust as the name implies is referred to as dust generated on construction sites; and is of various types. Dust can be dirty as well as causes nuisance. However, most importantly, it can also cause severe health damage, sometimes with long-term consequences.
Types of Dust
Silica Dust Particles
There are three main types of dust:
Silica dust: Silica is a natural mineral found in sand, sandstone, and granite in large quantities. Many building materials such as concrete and mortar are also commonly seen. During many everyday tasks such as cutting, drilling, and grinding, silica is broken into a very fine dust (also known as Respirable Crystalline Silica or RCS). Silicium dust is often called silica.
Non-silica dust: Where silica is not found or present in meager quantities, there are some construction products. Gypsum, cement, calcareous, marble and dolomite are the most common. When cutting things like bricks, this dust is also mixed with silica dust.
Wood dust: Wood is widely used in building and is found in two primary forms: softwood and hardwood. Wood-based products, including MDF and chipboard, are also commonly used.
Causes of Dust
Building workers have a particularly high risk of developing health problems due to prolonged exposure to high dust levels. OSHA’s silica standard for general industry and maritime took effect June 23, 2018. The agency estimates that 2.3 million workers are exposed to silica dust annually.
On a construction site, there are many routine tasks that can produce high dust levels:
Cutting paving blocks, curbs, and flags.
Chase concrete and mortar raking.
Sweeping dry area of the site.
Cutting roof tiles.
Concrete scabbling or grinding or other construction materials.
Soft demolition of strips.
Woodcuts and sanding.
Sanding taped and covered plasterboard joints.
The 2002 regulations of Health Hazardous Substances Control (COSHH) regulate activities that may expose workers to building dust. It provides employers with a legal obligation to prevent or adequately control the exposure of workers and requires risk assessment and control and control.
Dust builds up in the lungs and, while the effects may not be immediately apparent, exposure to high levels of dust can lead to permanent damage to the lungs and airways over a prolonged period. Some of the diseases mostly affect construction workers are related to dust include lung cancer which is silicosis. Chronic obstructive pulmonary illness (COPD) which is asthma.
There are some factors that contribute to the risks from dust: The more energy involved the work increases the risk. In a very short time, high-energy tools such as cut-off saws, grinders and grit blasters produce much dust. Depending on how close the work area is, dust will build up. The longer the work takes, the more dust. Doing the same work day after day increases the risk of hazardous dust exposure.